5 things snowbirds should do to stay in the U.S.

File the right forms and don’t overstay your welcome

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The U.S. government has a better idea than ever of how long you’ve been in the country, now that border officials routinely photograph your license plate and exchange information with Canadian authorities. “If you were able to bend the rules in the past, it ain’t going to fly any more,” says Terry Ritchie, a cross-border financial expert with Cardinal Point Wealth Management Inc. and co-author of The Canadian Snowbird in America (an updated edition is expected this Spring). Here are a few ways to stay in Uncle Sam’s good books.

A guide to achieving the snowbird lifestyle »

1. Keep count: 182 days

That’s how many days you’re allowed to stay in the U.S. during a calendar year on a visitor’s visa. In fact, the Canadian Snowbird Association suggests you avoid being in the U.S. longer than 182 days in any rolling 12-month period, to avoid contravening a common interpretation of the rule. Otherwise, you could be barred from re-entering the U.S.

2. Carry a “border binder”

Keep dates and locations of all your border crossings in a file, along with copies of property tax statements, utility bills and your most recent tax return should you need to provide evidence that your permanent home is in Canada. Don’t present it unless asked.

3. File your Form 8840

You’ll need it if you live in the U.S. more than four months in a year. Otherwise you may run afoul of a complicated IRS calculation called the “substantial presence test,” which may require you to pay U.S. income tax.

4. Declare your income

Snowbirds who own U.S. property must file a U.S. tax return if they have rental income or sell a property. They should also include any gains on their Canadian return, where they’ll get a credit for any U.S. taxes paid).

5. Mind the provincial gap

It’s not just how long you’ve been out of country. Canadians must reside in their home province for at least five months of each year (six in Saskatchewan and P.E.I.; four in Newfoundland) to retain health coverage, say CSA officials.

3 comments on “5 things snowbirds should do to stay in the U.S.

  1. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7… yup, those are 5 things.


  2. So how do provinces enforce the number of months of residence required to maintain health coverage? As an auditor I can only think of a few ways this would be possible for provincial authorities, but a host of other ways people could get around it. CD


  3. I have a place in Phoenix (bought at a 91 cent dollar) and if I were to sell it today for the same price I paid there would be no capital gain. When I bring those US dollars back and convert to Canadian at a 71 cent dollar there would be a substantial profit. Is that exchange in money subject to captial gains taxes in Canada?


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