Are you really cut out to be a landlord?

Avoid the pitfalls and become a successful income property owner

  46

by

From the Summer 2012 issue of the magazine.

  46

When my mom and dad came to Canada from Italy in 1957, they had only one dream—to buy a home of their own. But after a few Sunday afternoons of real estate hunting in Toronto, they realized their meagre savings weren’t going to go far. Then one weekend they stumbled upon a small, rickety duplex on bustling Claremont Street that was in much need of repair. It had a two-bedroom unit on the main floor and a one-bedroom unit on the second. It didn’t take them long to figure out that, with rent payments coming in from one of the units, they could afford to buy and live in this modest property. So, with a small down payment—and a lot of elbow grease—they became landlords.

For the next 10 years, they dealt with a slew of tenants including a young nurse with a very active sex life, a carpenter with a roaring motorcycle and a university student with a pet iguana he carried around on his shoulder while doing the laundry. They eventually sold the duplex for a small profit and used the equity to buy a bungalow in the suburbs, and today they insist their days as landlords got them on the path to achieving their financial goals.

Most beginner landlords are inspired by my parents’ story. And why not? Low interest rates and rising real estate prices are spurring Canadians to become landlords by renting out basement apartments, a second condo or small apartment building bought solely for investment purposes. But the sad truth is that just a few small mistakes can turn your landlord dreams into a nightmare. “When friends tell me they’ve bought themselves a rental property, I always say, ‘Congratulations, you just bought yourself a business,’ ” says Deb Mattina, a former adjudicator with the Landlord and Tenant Board in Ontario. “Treat it like one.”

While being a successful landlord means making sure the numbers work in your favour, it’s also important to understand the other rules of the game, including landlord and tenant laws. “Good tenants are hard to come by,” says Alan Silverstein, a real estate lawyer in Toronto who has witnessed his fair share of landlord dreams gone sour. “Laws require more and more of landlords all the time. You have to keep on top of it to come out ahead.”

If you’re considering becoming a landlord and want to know the secrets to making it a financial success, read on.

Pick a path to prosperity

There are several ways to become a landlord. You can rent out a part of your own home, such as a basement suite, or you can purchase a second place, in which case you’ll need to decide if you want to deal with your tenants directly, or use a property management company. All the financial rewards are yours to keep if you deal with the tenants yourself, but you’ll probably find yourself devoting a lot of time and energy to maintaining the property.

Just ask Milo Wu, a 31-year-old elementary school counselor in Vancouver. He and his wife Erica, 31, bought a bungalow in 2005. Wu had just read The Automatic Millionaire by David Bach and, as he tells it, was ready “to make real estate my piggy bank.” But after just three years, the couple sold the bungalow because the endless stream of repairs was harming both their pocketbooks and their lifestyle. “It can be a ticking time bomb,” says Wu. “If you’re a hands-on landlord, any time the phone rings, it can be a tenant complaining about a leaky faucet or a plugged toilet. We wanted to be free of tenant complaints.”

The lesson? “Landlording is not a passive investment,” says Silverstein, the real estate lawyer. “You have to nurture it to make it worth your while. If you’re not up to doing that, don’t become a landlord.”

Being a landlord can put a strain on your relationship, too. “You have to be a united front as a couple if you plan to become landlords,” says Lenore Davis, a fee-only adviser with Dixon, Davis and Co. in Victoria. “It’s not the financial stuff that ruins a couple, it’s the emotional stuff.” Her solution? “I have couples write down their long-term financial goals separately. Then we talk it through. Usually 20% of couples aren’t on the same page with landlording and need to consider other investment options.”

There are plenty of reasons for that disconnect. One partner may not be comfortable with carrying a lot of debt, or may not want their free time impinged upon by tenants. Whatever the reason, you and your spouse have to find a compromise before taking your first step.

Handing over the responsibility of maintaining your place to a property management company certainly helps reduce the amount of work. You don’t have to deal with tenant issues and rent collection, but the downside is it will cost you up to 10% of the revenue—plus you’re still on the hook for maintenance costs and missed rent.

Another option is to buy a condo for the sole purpose of renting it out. In that case, the maintenance fees will take care of some upkeep, so there’s less responsibility on the owner. This has worked well for Wu, who currently owns a rental condo that he says requires no hands-on work.

Once you find what works for you, the key is holding your property for the long haul—at least 10 years—to increase your chances of financial success. “Ultimately, money in real estate is made not by timing the market,” says Tom Karadza, a real estate agent with Rock Star Real Estate in Toronto. “The money is made by time in the market.” So plan to hold on to your rental property long enough for it to pay off.

Find the perfect property

Start your rental property search by looking at cities with good job and population growth so there’s a large pool of tenants to pick from. Right now, good opportunities exist in Edmonton, Calgary, Halifax and Barrie, Ont. For instance, Barrie is considered a good market because its population is growing quickly and many new arrivals are still renting after three years, so there are lots of potential tenants.

Also build a team of professionals to help you, including a good real estate lawyer, tax accountant and mortgage broker. Read books on how to buy rental property and ask friends and family to share their own landlording experiences with you.

Ultimately, the best property for you might be your own home. “Learn the ropes with a basement apartment,” says Silverstein. “Your losses are limited and you’ll get a good idea about tenant demands.”

Figure out what you can afford

Based on the down payment you have available, what can you afford to buy? Keep in mind that in Canada small rental properties of one to four units require a minimum down payment of 20% to qualify for a Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. (CMHC) insured loan. How would affordability change if you increased your down payment? Don’t forget to factor in real estate closing costs and other financial commitments that you have in life—things like a new car, medical bills or daycare costs.

Of course, some investors are so keen to get in the game that they’ll put just 5% down on a property, or they’ll use credit card cash advances to scrape together a down payment. Don’t do it. “Lenders want you to have some skin in the game,” says Marc Lamontagne, a fee-only adviser with Ryan Lamontagne Inc. in Ottawa. “So down payments under 20% for investment properties are rare. Lenders don’t want to be left on the hook if cash flow turns negative.”

Run the numbers

Before buying anything, ask yourself whether you can still make money, given that prices in many parts of Canada are at seven-year highs. “There’s more than one way to assess a property, but ensuring that it’s cash-flow positive from day one is the ideal,” says Lamontagne. “Don’t count on appreciation in price for your investment return. That’s just speculation.”

Once you know your down payment, it’s time to look at what rents and expenses will be like for the properties you are considering. That means looking at total annual rental income less all expenses (typically mortgage interest, property taxes, insurance and utilities). Put all of this information into a cash flow statement, and the number you get when you subtract expenses from income will show either a positive cash flow (meaning you’re making money) or negative cash flow (you’re losing money).

Some investors will argue that it’s fine to lose a bit of money each month because the tenants are paying your mortgage. But this line of thinking is a slippery slope to losses, because there will be items you can’t control—like rising mortgage rates, major repairs and unpaid rents—that can cost you thousands. “You have to think of it as you would any small business,” says Silverstein. “If a small business is in the red, that’s not a good thing, and neither is it for a rental property—whether tenants are paying your mortgage or not.”

The one thing that often trips up landlords is unforeseen expenses. To minimize that risk, budget 2% of the purchase price of your property for maintenance and repair costs. So if the property you bought costs $300,000, you should add $6,000 a year for repairs to your annual expense budget to get a more accurate cash flow projection. Otherwise, losses can mount quickly.

Also make sure you beef up your rainy-day fund. “The biggest mistake I see people make is failing to recognize that you need reserves,” says Ross McCallister, a property manager in Arizona. “They stretch their finances too far and then, when a tenant doesn’t pay for a month or two or three, it becomes emotional and pinches the family’s lifestyle.”

Alen Majer, a sales trainer in Toronto, learned that the hard way. Majer first became a landlord in 2006 when he bought a 600-sq-ft one-bedroom condo in Mississauga, Ont., for $165,000 for the sole purpose of renting it out. “I liked the idea of buying a property while someone else paid the mortgage,” says Majer. But even though the property started out with positive cash flow, it soon turned negative when the condo management unexpectedly raised monthly maintenance fees by 15% to $428 a month. “That’s when our cash flow started to suffer,” says Majer, who found he had no emergency cash for a much-needed stove.

So, after owning the property for five years, Majer sold it, pocketing about $48,000 after taxes and expenses. “Based on an initial investment of $25,000, our investment did well over those five years,” says Majer. “But we knew that being short $50 a month can quickly turn into a $100-a-month loss, which can become $150. As a landlord you need to be vigilant about maintaining that positive cash flow.”

Majer says he learned his lesson and is more prepared with his second foray into landlording—a condo in Toronto. “I built a financial safety cushion of a few thousand dollars right into my cash flow calculations,” says Majer. “If mortgage rates go up, as they’re bound to do in the near future, I’ll be covered.”

Know the law

Learn about landlord and tenant laws in your province to ensure you’re prepared in case things go wrong—and they will. The three most common types of disputes from a landlord’s perspective are non-payment of rent, persistent late payments, and unruly behaviour or damages. Each has a separate form that has to be filed to the Landlord and Tenant Board to get your case heard. “I tell all landlords to be consistent and not to get emotionally involved,” says Toronto paralegal Cathy Corsetti. “Those are the messiest cases. When they go sour, they really go sour.”

By far the biggest reason landlords go to Landlord and Tenant Court is for arrears of rent. “Tenants can be pretty savvy when it comes to excuses for why they haven’t paid the rent,” says Corsetti. “They’ve had their wallet stolen, a cheque is late.” Corsetti advises landlords to stick to the rules and not be swayed by emotional pleas for exceptions.

You can minimize problems by doing a check on all potential tenants. That means calling their employer as well as two of their previous landlords. Be careful though, because some tenants will put down the names of friends and family as references, hoping you won’t dig deeper. Others may even give photocopies of fraudulent credit scores and bank statements in the hope of hiding their bad tenancy record. “There are professional renters out there,” says Mattina. “Once they’re in, they don’t pay the rent. Then it’s up to you to evict them and get the rent money. That can be a challenge because these renters know the law and will do everything they can to stay without paying.”

As soon as one of your tenants doesn’t pay the rent, serve them notice in writing. If rent is to be paid on the first of the month, in most provinces you can legally file notice on the second. (Although many landlord and tenant laws are the same across Canada, check with your own province’s Tenancies Act or Landlord and Tenant Board for the specifics.) Usually the tenant then gets 14 days to pay the full amount owing. If they don’t pay, the landlord can file an application for a hearing three weeks later. “Always, always serve notice on the first day you can,” says Mattina. “Once you apply, the clock starts ticking. You can change your mind if they come through with the rent, but serve the notice. The longer you take to file it, the longer it will take to get your money.”

Whitney Wihidal, a chiropractor and landlord in Orillia, Ont., is pragmatic about rent arrears and evictions. He owned a 14-unit apartment building with his brother-in-law for several years before selling it in 2009 for about the same price he’d paid for it. “There were always a couple of tenants I had to chase down for the rent, and one or two in the process of being evicted every month,” says Wihidal. “Cut your losses by knowing the law.”

But even if everything goes in your favour, it can still take anywhere from three months to a year to get a tenant evicted. That’s many months of lost rental income that you may never recoup. That’s why these days, Wihidal sticks closer to home, renting out his basement. It’s allowed him to easily keep an eye on things. “I always advertise at the local college for student tenants,” says Wihidal. “If the parents come along to look at the place and write the monthly cheques, I’m pretty sure I’ll get my money. They solidify it for me.”

Learn the tax rules

To use the tax laws to your full benefit, be aware of what can and can’t be claimed on your taxes. For instance, expenses that may be fully deducted against your rental income typically include the cost of advertising, repairs and maintenance of the rental space, and legal expenses incurred to collect unpaid rent. If the rental apartment is part of your home, you can deduct certain expenses based on the portion of space the rental suite takes up in the house, typically insurance premiums, the interest component of mortgage payments, property taxes, utilities and landscaping.

In general, you have a loss if your rental expenses are more than your gross rental income. You can deduct this loss against your other sources of income. So, for instance, if you made $10,000 in rent, and expenses were $4,000, then $6,000 will be added to your taxable income for the year. At the 40% tax bracket, you would pay $2,400 in taxes on that rental income. If, instead, your expenses exceeded your rental income by $6,000, this amount is subtracted from your other sources of taxable income, like your salary. So if you paid taxes on all your other income throughout the year, you would get a refund of $2,400.

Some expenses may not be fully deductible in the year they’re incurred: they may have to be amortized over several years at prescribed rates. These are called capital expenses, and the method of deducting them over time is referred to as depreciation, or capital cost allowance (CCA). The distinguishing feature of a capital expense is that it has an enduring value that benefits the current as well as future years, such as renovations and major appliances.

If you incur expenses to bring a property back to its original condition—for example, painting and grouting—the expenses should be fully deductible in the year incurred. If, on the other hand, you enhance the original condition of the property—say, by renovating a bathroom or installing a new roof—that may be considered a capital expense and should be depreciated over three to five years. Your accountant can help determine this for you.

Finally, don’t overlook important details that could cost you thousands in future gains, such as the tax consequences of renting out a portion of your principal residence. “If you have a self-contained unit in your home that you are renting out, such as a basement apartment or entire second floor, you effectively have two properties and will be taxed on a portion of your capital gains—according to space and percentage of time rented—when you sell,” says John Mott, a chartered accountant in Toronto.

Also be diligent about claiming all rental income on your annual tax return. If you don’t, the taxman will eventually find out about it, ask for back taxes and give you stiff penalties for dodging your tax obligations. “Tenants have to put down their landlord’s name and the annual rent paid on their own tax forms to receive certain provincial tax credits and benefits,” says Mott. “All of this info can easily be cross-referenced by the Canada Revenue Agency and cost you thousands when they find out about it.”

Decide on an exit strategy

Knowing when to sell your rental property is easy if you have a long-term financial goal. Do you want to hold on to your property for a source of income in retirement? If not, then one exit strategy may involve selling sometime in your 60s. “If you’re close to retirement, take advantage of good market conditions,” says Thomas Venner, a financial planner in Hamilton, Ont. “Take your profit and stuff it in annuities for your later years.”

Or you may have a more immediate goal for your rental gains. Gord Radman and his wife Rossana certainly do. Eight years ago, the Burlington, Ont., couple purchased a 1,300-sq-ft townhouse that they’ve rented out. The property has been cash flow positive since day one. With three kids aged 15, 13 and 11, the Radmans plan to sell and tap into what will be close to $200,000 of equity in the townhouse in five years. The goal? To pay for their children’s post-secondary education.

“The kids’ RESPs will fund some of their education, but we’ve always known it would never be enough,” says Gord. “The equity from the townhouse will fully fund the rest. Instead of getting a Ferrari or buying a bigger house, the money will go to the kids’ schooling. That’s always been the plan and we aim to stick to it.”

46 comments on “Are you really cut out to be a landlord?

  1. Very good article!

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  2. Thanks for the great article. I have been a landlord for 2 years now and it has been very good for me and my family financially but the trouble that comes with it is often difficult to deal with. You could not believe the stuff that I have to deal with as a landlord. But as you point out, a good exit strategy is needed but I am thinking about my kids so we are going to keep the property for now.

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  3. This is an excellent article for anyone who is interested in owning rental property. I have recently sold all 10 of my rental homes/buildings with a total of 37 apartments which I had owned from between 10-15 or so years. The ability to use leverage, the banks and sellers financing, allowed me to be in every one of these with nothing down. The return obviously was infinity. 0 down, 7 figures back. The key point given here was to run them like a business so you don't receive the middle of the night call. In fact, run properly, there were times I would go weeks without any calls at any time.

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    • I have two rental properties (a condo and a house) and I dream about getting a little building or a couple of them, but my understanding is its between 35-45% down? How do I go about it with nothing down?

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    • Hi Andy: I am inspired by your story.. however mine does not have such a happy ending as yet. We bought a rental property a year ago and financed the downpayment with our line of credit. Unfortunately the rent does not cover the overheads (mortgage, proeprty tax and condo fees).. I guess we made the mistake of ignoring the numbers before the purchase… What should we do??

      Reply

  4. That is the question. If you want to be a landlord, you would have to consider a lot of things, like a whole lot of renovations, leaks, plumbing, roof access ladders and so much more.

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  5. How about capital gain tax when you sell the property? Can anybody comment on this?
    Thanks
    Mominstratford

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  6. You possibly can rent out an element of your house, for instance a attic room, as well as you can purchase another spot, whereby you’ll have to choose if you wish to handle your current tenants immediately, as well as work with a home supervision organization.

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  7. there is some very good sound advice, I have seen many people fail taking this road . The Rules and regulation must be be something that you are familiar with as they will help you when you are in a sticky situation.

    Many people don't really understand just how much work will go into this venture .

    I have found that renting a room, or part of your property allows you to control much more what is happening on your property

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  8. Good tips,as a landlord myself,I know that information never too much.

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  9. Great Post ! I would like to add some more to your article some of other Common Tax Deduction technique or way:
    1. Advertising costs.
    2. Rent you paid to others.
    3. Telephone calls related to your rental property activities. However you cannot deduct the first line for local service coming into your home. That is considered a personal line.
    4. You can credit or deduct expenses paid to make your property accessible to individuals with disabilities or the elderly.
    5. If your property is considered a commercial building, you can deducts costs to make it energy efficient.

    Reply

  10. Having a hard time finding tenants? Want a better way to see if these tenants will be realiable? Want to decrease your vacancy rate?
    Check out this new state of the art lease management system! https://www.trustedtenant.com/

    Reply

  11. Some very solid advice, man some of the excuses they come up with are too funny sometimes but at the end of the day, you can't built in too much safety or your vacancy rate goes up too much.

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  12. some very good advice here . I have often wondered if it is all worth the extra effort that has to be put into this. there is also a big risk – you idea of renting out part of the house sound good , less money nut maybe less risk as well – thanks

    Reply

  13. This is my first time to visit your blog and I found very informational knowledge you done a great job, Keep more posting like this.

    Reply

  14. Recent graduate, definitely want to have my own property to rent out one day for income stability. This definitely made me think a lot more, especially regarding the taxes here in Canada..thanks!

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  15. We all dream of having our own house. But it takes time and money of course. Hence, we have to work hard for it and find a good realtor.

    Reply

  16. Wow to be a landlord would mean to invest a huge amount of time! Nothing for me really, I prefer to spend my money and time in a different way!

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  17. Thanks for give me information on this topic. you have sharing very nice post. you have share great post on your blog.

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  18. I don't think one needs so many skills to become a landlord. You just have to be a good organizer and a fair person that goes by the rules. The rest is just details.

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  19. there is some very excellent superb guidance, I have seen many individuals fall short getting this street . The Guidelines and control must be be something that you are acquainted with as they will help you when you are in a difficult scenario.

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  20. Great article, being a landlord certainly can have its perks but at the same time it can be a super stressful time.

    Reply

  21. Being entrepreneurial simply means developing the right skills, attitudes and initiatives to make an innovative contribution to an organisation…

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  22. This is a very detailed article with great explanation. Even i have the same doubt like what is the capital gain tax when you sell the property

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  23. One other thing to consider before making the jump to Landlord status… Make absolutely sure that you can float your operation even if the vacancy rate goes high. Recently this has been a constant struggle for me as we've had a higher than average vacancy rate.

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  24. .Nothing is perfect, and any business has its ups and downs, but having a rewarding and fulfilling ownership in something that gives you pride is worth its weight in gold…

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  25. I love hearing stories about immigrants making it. Really anybody making it is inspiring. Your post tells both sides of the story not just "being a landlord makes you lots of money" like you see on real estate blogs.

    My brother has been a landlord and dealt with Section 8 tenants driving their cars on his grass and tearing it up. Also, they made unruly demands each month. He's now convince if the property can't support a property management company's fee then don't do the property. Late night calls from complaining tenants are more stress than they're worth. And that doesn't even consider the problem of bounced checks, late rent, or rent not paid at all.

    Reply

  26. Yes, Becoming a landlord isn't easy.

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  27. Very interesting Post. Today’s peoples are so busy in their personal activities ! very little no of peoples have time to do social something like you mention! thanks

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  28. this is a great post.being a landlord is not easy.its a tons of work..

    Reply

  29. I still own my property from out east, it's definitively not as easy to manage as one might think.

    Reply

  30. Repeated and extreme changes in temperature and/or humidity causing the wood to expand and contract will stress the product and lead to several issues such as squeaking, warping, cupping, crowning, gapping, and delamination.

    Reply

  31. Thanks for this! I learn a lot.. Starting a have anew home is not that easy. You have to study all aspect of scenario. Think,plan and discuss it with some other experts. And most of all.owning a home takes a lot of rules and regulation that strictly needs to be followed.Especially when it come to constitutional law of taxes and payments..

    Reply

  32. i agree,“Landlording is not a passive investment,” says Silverstein, the real estate lawyer. “You have to nurture it to make it worth your while. If you’re not up to doing that, don’t become a landlord.”

    Reply

  33. To own a home, no matter which condition, it will always be the best investment.

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  34. Great tips here to help us become a landlord. It's not easy but it's possible.

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  35. I also think the biggest reason landlords go to Landlord and Tenant Court is for arrears of rent. “Tenants can be pretty savvy when it comes to excuses for why they haven’t paid the rent

    Reply

  36. Buying AN investment property is all regarding analysis. Begin by wanting into property costs, rental yields and vacancy rates to work out what and wherever you'll be able to afford to shop for. discuss with land agents or use land websites to induce a transparent image of the property market.
    Reserve the foremost energy to researching the realm you may provide. once it involves investment, the safest bet is shopping for as near town as you'll be able to afford – there's forever demand for well-maintained properties near offices, restaurants and a town fashion.

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  37. I do consider all the concepts you have offered in your post. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are very quick for newbies. Could you please lengthen them a bit from next time?

    Reply

  38. Pingback: What Makes a Good Landlord?

  39. Being a landlord would be a challenge. It’s hard to find right tenants for your apartment. You have nicely portrayed the pros and cons of this issue. Thanks for aware us with this information.

    http://www.rentinto.ca/services

    Reply

  40. Excellent very clearly briefed about pros and cone for renting property. please email me what are the options for me to sale my condo which is rented and the lease is now expired so it is month to month now. The rennet has any say if I wanted to sale my condo and my Agent can deal with him for smooth saling of the condo ?

    Reply

  41. The best defence is great offence. Preparedness is the best way to approaching being a landlord. If people invested in repairing their properties in the first place then the leaky faucets will be virtually nil. Doesn’t anyone watch income property with Scott McGilvary? (Not sure of spelling of his last name) I’m not gonna wait until things break down and fix them at that time. Go through the darned place and fix any problem you see or anticipate happening soon. Everyone tries to put it off and pay for it with calls in the middle of the night. I literally never get calls from tenants. 12 properties and counting. When I buy a new property I invest $100,000 in rents so that I know undoubtedly that the property will last a VERY long time without problems. (Usually) Secondly, I make sure the rents are also high (as the tenants are getting a high quality rental unit, and therefore I eliminate the riff raff (professional renters – like my brother used to be – I learned from him what to do to eliminate them from the equation) and have very high quality renters. No singles, no unemployed, no bad credits, in depth reference checks and employment checks, = EXCELLENT tenants. So what if I lose a month, I ALWAYS have positive cash flow, and the tenants take great pride in the place they live because it’s absolutely gorgeous. Listen, you get what you pay for, you offer a shitty looking place with low rent you will get the same in your tenants. Invest in your property and make it VERY attractive, and the potential tenants will flock to your place like flies to cow dung. It’s simple mathematics.

    Always stick to your game plan and DON’T deviate from it. Once you do, it’s like a person on a diet. They taste one chocolate and eventually it leads to two and three and four more more. Before they know it, they’re off the diet and right back at square one.

    Thanks.
    Daniel

    Reply

    • Hi,
      I’m sorry I did not quite get this part of your answer: “When I buy a new property I invest $100,000 in rents so that I know undoubtedly that the property will last a VERY long time without problems.”

      What do you mean by investing in rents?

      Thanks for your comments

      Reply

  42. I have been a landlord for years, I have made some big mistakes, but overall made money. However, take my advice and use an agent. I was so stressed out with tenants, I said “Never Again.” I still have a condo rented, which I own, but I only get half the rent by the time the condo fees, property taxes and agent’s 10% are taken out, plus I have had to replace the fridge, washer and dryer in the last year and have the place professionally painted. Still, it is a little nest egg for me and helps with my old age pension. The agent’s 10% is worth it, as they keep it rented out and deal with the rent and repairs. I think it would be a good idea to rent a property out for a little more to cover the agent’s fee, but that depends on the rental market.

    Reply

  43. Your article has really good reading, thought-provoking information. You make several sound points I find agreeable. Your article is a good example of superior writing from a writer that cares. Thanks for sharing this information.

    Reply

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